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Tongkat ali's active ingredients have not been identified... but it's probably not eurycomanone


There are hundreds of specific chemicals present in tongkat ali roots. They mostly belong to the following classes of chemicals:

steroids

quassinoids

coumarins

alkanoids

anthraquinone

triterpenes

flavonoids

The most prevalent ingredient of tongkat ali root, of course, is cellulose (fiber).

Of the more complicated chemicals, two are fairly easy two detect:

eurycomanone and eyrycomanol

Both are quassinoids.

Because eurycomanone is typical for tongkat ali and because it can be detected by liquid chromatography, it has been suggested that eurycomanone is used as a marker chemical.

This means that if an unknown substance is run through a liquid chromatograph, and the absorption pattern of eurycomanone shows on the filter paper, then one can assume that the unknown compound is tongkat ali, or contains tongkat ali.

This has nothing to do with an analysis of what causes the testosterone and libido boosting effects if tongkat ali.

A marker is a chemical that IDENTIFIES a substance. This is different from EFFICACY, the effect-causing chemical.

The effects of tongkat ali and tongkat ali extract may be caused by alkaloids or steroids, or any yet unresearched or undiscovered chemical constituents of tongkat ali root. If you have a faible for chemistry, you can see a yet uncompleted list of chemical constituents of tongkat ali roots below.

One thing is sure: any claim of standardization to certain levels of eurycomanone is cheap propaganda, not science.

If you consider buying tongkat ali, don't be so gullible. Buy something with government approval. That gives you at least some protection.

Here, for those chemically inclined, an expanded list of the not-yet mentioned chemical constituents of tongkat ali. Any of them may be responsible for the desired effects. Most likely, several compounds work in unison.

Squalene-type triterpenes:

eurylene

14-deacetyl eurylene longilene peroxide

Further:

n-pentyl â-carboline- 1-propionate

1-hydroxy-9-methoxycanthin-6-one 5-hydroxymethyl-9-methoxycanthin-6-one

19 known ß-caroline alkaloids

3 ß-caroline lkaloids

1-hydroxy-9-methoxycanthin-6-one

1-hydroxy- 9-methoxycanthin-6-one

Two biphenylneoligans:

2-hydroxy-3,2’,6’-trimethoxy-4’-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-l-propenyl)-biphenyl

2-hydroxy-3,2’-dimethoxy-4’-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl)

Another 27 quassinoids:

eurycolactone D, E, F

eurycomanone-type C20 and C19

one klaineanone-type C20 

six eurycomalactone-type C19 quassinoids

An epoxy group type of eurycomalactone

pasakbumin-C

13a, 21-epoxyeurycomanone eurylactone

eurycomaoside

Furthermore, for comprehensiveness, there are also 83 volatile compounds, including:

3-phenoxy-1-propanol

2-phenoxy-ethanol

4-ethynyl-4-hydroxy-3 5, 5-trimethyl-2-cyclohex-1-enone

benzoic acid

acetic acid

octanoic acid


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References:

Abubakar, B.M., Salleh, F.M., Wagiran, A. (2017) Chemical Composition of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) and the Quality Control of its Herbal Medicinal Products. Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 17 Issue 7, Pages: 324-338 http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2017.324.338

Bräuer P, Anielski P, Schwaiger S, Stuppner H, Tran TVA, Vollmer G, Zierau O, Thieme D, Keiler AM. (2019) In vitro metabolism of selected bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia root extract to identify suitable markers in doping control. Drug testing and analysis Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages: 86-94 https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2449

George, A., Kawasaki, Y., Abas, A., (2017) Eurycoma longifolia and its use in entrancing stimulating immune system. Google Patents Retrieved from: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20160067293?oq=lj100+tongkat+ali

Kotirum S, Ismail SB, Chaiyakunapruk N. (2015) Efficacy of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) on erectile function improvement: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, Volume 23, Issue 5, Pages:693-698 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.07.009

Mohamed, A.N., Vejayan, J., Mohd Yusoff, M. (2015) Review on eurycoma longifolia pharmacological and phytochemical properties Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages: 831-844 http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2015.831.844

Vejayan, J., Mohamed, A.N., Zulkifli, A.A., Che Yahya, Y.A. (2018) Marker to authenticate Eurycomalongifolia containing aphrodisiac herbal products. Current science Volume 115 Issue 5 Page: 886 Retrieved from research.net Marker to authenticate Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) containing aphrodisiac herbal products




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